One of the more difficult aspects of the analyst gig is sorting through all the information you get, and isolating out any inherent biases. The kinds of inquiries we get from clients can all too easily skew our perceptions of the industry, since people tend to come to us for specific reasons, and those reasons don’t necessarily represent the mean of the industry. Aside from all the vendor updates (and customer references), our end user conversations usually involve helping someone with a specific problem – ranging from vendor selection, to basic technology education, to strategy development/problem solving. People call us when they need help, not when things are running well, so it’s all too easy to assume a particular technology is being used more widely than it really is, or a problem is bigger or smaller than it really is, because everyone calling us is asking about it. Countering this takes a lot of outreach to find out what people are really doing even when they aren’t calling us.
Over the past few weeks I’ve had a series of opportunities to work with end users outside the context of normal inbound inquiries, and it’s been fairly enlightening. These included direct client calls, executive roundtables such as one I participated in recently with IANS (with a mix from Fortune 50 to mid-size enterprises), and some outreach on our part. They reinforced some of what we’ve been thinking, while breaking other assumptions. I thought it would be good to compile these together into a “state of the industry” summary. Since I spend most of my time focused on web application and data security, I’ll only cover those areas:
When it comes to web application and data security, if there isn’t a compliance requirement, there isn’t budget – Nearly all of the security professionals we’ve spoken with recognize the importance of web application and data security, but they consistently tell us that unless there is a compliance requirement it’s very difficult for them to get budget. That’s not to say it’s impossible, but non-compliance projects (however important) are way down the priority list in most organizations. In a room of a dozen high-level security managers of (mostly) large enterprises, they all reinforced that compliance drove nearly all of their new projects, and there was little support for non-compliance-related web application or data security initiatives. I doubt this surprises any of you.
“Compliance” may mean more than compliance – Activities that are positioned as helping with compliance, even if they aren’t a direct requirement, are more likely to gain funding. This is especially true for projects that could reduce compliance costs. They will have a longer approval cycle, often 9 months or so, compared to the 3-6 months for directly-required compliance activities. Initiatives directly tied to limiting potential data breach notifications are the most cited driver. Two technology examples are full disk encryption and portable device control.
PCI is the single biggest compliance driver for web application and data security – I may not be thrilled with PCI, but it’s driving more web application and data security improvements than anything else.
The term Data Loss Prevention has lost meaning – I discussed this in a post last week. Even those who have gone through a DLP tool selection process often use the term to encompass more than the narrow definition we prefer.
It’s easier to get resources to do some things manually than to buy a tool – Although tools would be much more efficient and effective for some projects, in terms of costs and results, manual projects using existing resources are easier to get approval for. As one manager put it, “I already have the bodies, and I won’t get any more money for new tools.” The most common example cited was content discovery (we’ll talk more about this a few points down).
Most people use DLP for network (primarily email) monitoring, not content discovery or endpoint protection – Even though we tend to think discovery offers equal or greater value, most organizations with DLP use it for network monitoring.
Interest in content discovery, especially DLP-based, is high, but resources are hard to get for discovery projects – Most security managers I talk with are very interested in content discovery, but they are less educated on the options and don’t have the resources. They tell me that finding the data is the easy part – getting resources to do anything about it is the limiting factor.
The Web Application Firewall (WAF) market and Security Source Code Tools markets are nearly equal in size, with more clients on WAFs, and more money spent on source code tools per client – While it’s hard to fully quantify, we think the source code tools cost more per implementation, but WAFs are in slightly wider use.
WAFs are a quicker hit for PCI compliance – Most organizations deploying WAFs do so for PCI compliance, and they’re seen as a quicker fix than secure source code projects.
Most WAF deployments are out of band, and false positives are a major problem for default deployments – Customers are installing WAFs for compliance, but are generally unable to deploy them inline (initially) due to the tuning requirements.
Full drive encryption is mature, and well deployed in the early mainstream – Full drive encryption, while not perfect, is deployable in even large enterprises. It’s now considered a level-setting best practice in financial services, and usage is growing in healthcare and insurance. Other asset recovery options, such as remote data destruction and phone home applications, are now seen as little more than snake oil. As one CISO told us, “I don’t care about the laptop, we just encrypt it and don’t worry about it when it goes missing”.
File and folder encryption is not in wide use – Very few organizations are performing any wide scale file/folder encryption, outside of some targeted encryption of PII for compliance requirements.
Database encryption is hard, and not widely used – Most organizations are dissatisfied with database encryption options, and do not deploy it widely. Within a large organization there is likely some DB encryption, with preference given to file/folder/media protection over column level encryption, but most organizations prefer to avoid it. Performance and key management are cited as the primary obstacles, even when using native tools. Current versions of database encryption (primarily native encryption) do perform better than older versions, but key management is still unsatisfactory. Large encryption projects, when initiated, take an average of 12-18 months.
Large enterprises prefer application-level encryption of credit card numbers, and tokenization – When it comes to credit card numbers, security managers prefer to encrypt it at the application level, or consolidate numbers into a central source, using representative “tokens” throughout the rest of the application stack. These projects take a minimum of 12-18 months, similar to database encryption projects (the two are often tied together, with encryption used in the source database).
Email encryption and DRM tend to be workgroup-specific deployments – Email encryption and DRM use is scattered throughout the industry, but is still generally limited to workgroup-level projects due to the complexity of management, or lack of demand/compliance from users.
Database Activity Monitoring usage continues to grow slowly, mostly for compliance, but not quickly enough to save lagging vendors – Many DAM deployments are still tied to SOX auditing, and it’s not as widely used for other data security initiatives. Performance is reasonable when you can use endpoint agents, which some DBAs still resist. Network monitoring is not seen as effective, but may still be used when local monitoring isn’t an option. Network requirements, depending on the tool, may also inhibit deployments.
My main takeaway is that security managers know what they need to do to protect information assets, but they lack the time, resources, and management support for many initiatives. There is also broad dissatisfaction with security tools and vendors in general, in large part due to poor expectation setting during the sales process, and deliberately confusing marketing. It’s not that the tools don’t work, but that they’re never quite as easy as promised.
It’s an interesting dilemma, since there is clear and broad recognition that data security (and by extension, web application security) is likely our most pressing overall issue in terms of security, but due to a variety of factors (many of which we covered in our Business Justification for Data Security paper), the resources just aren’t there to really tackle it head-on.