We in the security industry tend to lump small and medium businesses together into “SMB”, but there are massive differences between a 20-person retail outlet and even a 100-person operation. These suggestions are specifically for small businesses with limited resources, based on everything we know about the latest threats and security defenses.
The following advice is not conditional – there really isn’t any safe middle ground, and these recommendations aren’t very expensive. These are designed to limit the chance you will be hit with attacks that compromise your finances or ability to continue business operations, and we’re ignoring everything else:
- Update all your computers to the latest operating systems and web browsers – this is Windows 7 or Mac OS X 10.6 as of this writing. On Windows, use at least Internet Explorer 8 or Firefox 3.6 (Firefox isn’t necessarily any more secure than the latest versions of IE). On Macs, use Firefox 3.6. Most small business struggle with keeping malware off their computers, and the latest operating systems are far more secure than earlier versions. Windows XP is nearly 10 years old at this point – odds are most of your cars are newer than that.
- Turn on automatic updates (Windows Update, or Software Update on Mac) and set them to check and automatically install patches daily. If this breaks software you need, find an alternative program rather than turning off updates. Keeping your system patched is your best security defense, because most attacks exploit known vulnerabilities. But since those vulnerabilities are converted to attacks within hours of becoming public (when the patch is released, if not earlier), you need to patch as quickly as possible.
- Use a dedicated computer for your online banking and financial software. Never check email on this system. Never use it to browse any Web site except your bank. Never install any applications other than your financial application. You can do this by setting up a non-administrative user account and then setting parental controls to restrict what Web sites it can visit. Cheap computers are $200 (for a new PC) and $700 (for a new Mac mini) and this blocks the single most common method for bad guys to steal money from small businesses, which is compromising a machine and then stealing credentials via a software key logger. Currently, the biggest source of financial losses for small business is malicious software sniffing your online bank credentials, which are then used to transfer funds directly to money mules. This is a better investment than any antivirus program.
- Arrange with your bank to require in-person or phone confirmation for any transfers over a certain amount, and check your account daily. Yes, react faster is applicable here as well. The sooner you learn about an attempt to move money from your account, the more likely you’ll be able to stop it. Remember that business accounts do not have the same fraud protections as consumer accounts, and if someone transfers your money out because they broke into your online banking account, it is very unlikely you will ever recover the funds.
- Buy backup software that supports both local and remote backups, like CrashPlan. Backup locally to hard drives, and keep at least one backup for any major systems off-site but accessible. Then subscribe to the online backup service for any critical business files. Remember that online backups are slow and take a long time to restore, which is why you want something closer to home. Joe Kissell’s Take Control of Mac OS X Backups is a good resource for developing your backup strategy, even if you are on Windows 7 (which includes some built-in backup features). Hard drives aren’t designed to last more than a few years, and all sorts of mistakes can destroy your data.
Those are my top 5, but here are a few more:
- Turn on the firewalls on all your computers. They can’t stop all attacks, but do reduce some risks, such as if another computer on the network (which might just mean in the same coffee shop) is compromised by bad guys, or someone connects an infected computer (like a personal laptop) to the network.
- Have employees use non-administrator accounts (standard users) if at all possible. This also helps limit the chances of those computers being exploited, and if they are, will limit the exploitation.
- If you have shared computers, use non-administrator accounts and turn on parental controls to restrict what can be installed on them. If possible, don’t even let them browse the web or check email (this really depends on the kind of business you have… if employees complain, buy an iPad or spare computer that isn’t needed for business, and isn’t tied to any other computer). Most exploits today are through email, web browsing, and infected USB devices – this helps with all three.
- Use an email service that filters spam and viruses before they actually reach your account.
- If you accept payments/credit cards, use a service and make sure they can document that their setup is PCI compliant, that card numbers are encrypted, and that any remote access they use for support has a unique username and password that is changed every 90 days. Put those requirements into the contract. Failing to take these precautions makes a breach much more likely.
- Install antivirus from a major vendor (if you are on Windows). There is a reason this is last on the list – you shouldn’t even think about this before doing everything else above.