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Bryan Sullivan

Tuesday, August 09, 2011

NoSQL and No Security

By Adrian Lane

Of all of the presentations at Black Hat USA 2011, I found Brian Sullivan’s presentation on “Server-Side JavaScript Injection: Attacking NoSQL and Node.js” the most startling. While I was aware of the poor security of most NoSQL database installations – especially their lack of support for authorization and authentication – I was not aware of their susceptibility to injection of both commands and code. Apparently Mongo and many of the NoSQL databases are nothing more than JavaScript processing engines, without the stigma of authentication. Most of these products are subject to several classes of attack, including injection, XSS, and CSRF. Brian demonstrated blind NoSQL injection scripts that can both discover database contents and run arbitrary commands. He cataloged an entire Mongo database with a couple lines of PHP.

Node.js is a commonly used web server – it’s lightweight and simple to deploy. It’s also insecure as hell! Node and NoSQL are basically new JavaScript based platforms – with both server and client functionality – which makes them susceptible to client and server side attacks. These attacks are very similar to the classic browser, web server, and relational database attacks we have observed over the past decade. When you mix in facilities like JSON (to objectify data elements) you get a bunch of methods which provide an easy way for attackers to inject code onto the server. Brian demonstrated the ability to inject persistent changes to the Node server, writing an executable to the file system using Node.js calls and then running it.

But it got worse from there: JSONP – essentially JSON with padding – is intended to provide cross-origin resource sharing. Yes, it’s a tool to bypass the same-origin policy. By wrapping query results in a callback, you can take action based upon the result set without end user participation. Third-party code can make requests and process the results – easily hijacking the session – without the user being aware of what’s going on.

These are exactly the same vulnerabilities we saw with browsers, web servers, and database servers 10 years ago. Only the syntax is different. What’s worrisome is the rapid adoption rate of these platforms – cheap, fast, and easy is always attractive for developers looking to get their applications running quickly. But it’s clear that the platforms are not ready for production applications – they should be reserved for proofs of concept do to their complete lack of security controls.

I’ll update this post with a link when the slide deck is posted. It’s worth your time to review just how easy these compromises are, but he also provides a few hints for how to protect yourself at the end of the presentation.

–Adrian Lane