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API Gateways: Implementation

By Adrian Lane

APIs go through a software lifecycle, just like any other application. The purchaser of the API develops, tests, and manages code as before, but when they publish new versions the API gateway comes into play. The gateway is what implements operational polices for APIs – serving as a proxy to enforce security, application throttling, event logging, and routing of API requests.

Exposing APIs and parameters, as the API owner grants access to developers, is a security risk in and of itself. Injection attacks, semantic attacks, and any other way for an attacker to manipulate API calls is fair game unless you filter requests. Today’s post will focus on implementation of security controls through the API gateway, and how the gateway protects the API.

Exposing APIs

What developers get access to is the first step in securing an API. Some API calls may not be suitable for developers – some features and functions are only appropriate for internal developers or specific partners. In other case some versions of an API call are out of date, or use of internal features has been deprecated but must be retained for limited backward compatibility. The API gateway determines what a developer gets access to, based on their credentials.

The gateway helps developers discover what API calls are available to them – with all the associated documentation, sample scripts, and validation tools. But behind the scenes it also constricts what each developer can see. The gateway exposes new and updated calls to developers, and acts as a proxy layer to reduce the API attack surface. The gateway may expose different API interfaces to developers depending on which credentials they provide and the authorization mapping provided by the API owner. Most gateway providers actually help with the entire production lifecycle of deployment, update, deprecation, and deletion – all based on security and access control settings.

URL whitelisting

We define ‘what’ an application developer can access when we provision the API – URL whitelisting defines ‘how’ it can be used. It is called a ‘whitelist’ because anything that matches it is allowed; unmatching requests are dropped. API gateways filter incoming requests according to the rules you set, validating that incoming requests meet formatting requirements.

This checking catches and stops some mistakes; the API gateway’s security prevents some mistakes from proceeding by preventing use of unauthorized requests. This may be used to restrict which capabilities are available to different groups of developers, as well as which features are accessible to external requests; the gateway also prevents direct access to back end services.

Incoming API calls run through a series of filters, checking general correctness of request headers and API call format. Calls that are too long, have missing parameters, or otherwise clearly fail to meet the specification are filtered out. Most whitelists are implemented as series of filters, which allows the API owner to add checks as needed and tune how API calls are validated. The owner of the API can add or delete filters as desired. Each platform comes with its own pre-defined URL filters but most customers create and add their own.

Parameter parsing (Injection attacks: XML attacks JSON attacks CSRF)

Attackers target application parameters. This is a traditional way to bypass access control and gain unauthorized access to back-end resources. API gateways also provide capabilities to examine user-defined content. “Parameter parsing” is examination of user-supplied content for specified attack signatures – they may identify attacks or API misuse. Content inspection works much like a ‘blacklists’ to identify known malicious API usage. Tests typically include regular expression checks of headers and content for SQL injection and cross-site scripting.

Parameters are checked sequentially, one rule at a time. Some platforms provide means to programmatically extend checking, altering both which checks are performed and how they are parsed, depending on the parameters of the API call. For example you might check the contents of an XML stream for both structure and to ensure that it does not contain binary code. API gateways typically provide packaged policies for content signature of know malicious parameters, but the owner API determines which policies are deployed.

Our next post will offer a selection guide – with specific comments on deployment models, evaluation checklists, and key technology differentiators.

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Comments

I get why you whitelist URLs. But why would you use blacklists for parameter parsing? Wouldn’t whitelisting be easier to manage and provide more preventive protection as well? Or is managing the chains of parsing possibilities just too unpredictable and painful?

p.s. Thanks again for all your difficult work.

By Brian Livingston


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