As we mentioned in our last post, most people don’t seem to consider the build environment when thinking about container security, but it’s important. Traditionally, the build environment is the domain of developers, and they don’t share a lot of details with outsiders (in this case, Operations folks). But this is beginning to change with Continuous Integration (CI) or full Continuous Deployment (CD), and more automated deployment. The build environment is more likely to go straight into production. This means that operations, quality assurance, release management, and other groups find themselves having to cooperate on building automation scripts and working together more closely. Collaboration means a more complex, distributed working environment, with more stakeholders having access. DevOps is rapidly breaking down barriers between groups, even getting some security teams to contribute test scripts and configuration updates. Better controls are needed to restrict who can alter the build environment and update code, and an audit process to validate who did what.
Don’t forget why containers are so attractive to developers. First, a container simplifies building and packaging application code – abstracting the app from its physical environment – so developers can worry about the application rather than its supporting systems. Second, the container model promotes lightweight services, breaking large applications down into small pieces, easing modification and scaling – especially in cloud and virtual environments. Finally, a very practical benefit is that container startup is nearly instant, allowing agile scaling up and down in response to demand. It is important to keep these in mind when considering security controls, because any control that reduces one of these core advantages will not be considered, or is likely to be ignored.
Build environment security breaks down into two basic areas. The first is access and usage of the basic tools that form the build pipeline – including source code control, build tools, the build controller, container management facilities, and runtime access. At Securosis we often call this the “management plane”, as these interfaces — whether API or GUI – are used to set access policies, automate behaviors and audit activity. Second is security testing of your code and the container, validating it conforms to security and operational practices. This post will focus on the former.
Securing the Build
Here we discuss the steps to protect your code – more specifically to protect build systems, to ensure they implement the build process you intended. This is conceptually very simple, but there are many pieces to this puzzle, so implementation can get complicated.
People call this Secure Software Delivery, Software Supply Chain Management, and Build Server Security – take your pick. It is management of the assemblage of tools which oversee and implement your process. For our purposes today these terms are synonymous.
Following is a list of recommendations for securing platforms in the build environment to ensure secure container construction. We include tools from Docker and others which that automate and orchestrate source code, building, the Docker engine, and the repository. For each tool you will employ a combination of identity management, roles, platform segregation, secure storage of sensitive data, network encryption, and event logging. Some of the subtleties follow.
- Source Code Control: Stash, Git, GitHub, and several variants are common. Source code control is one of the tools with a wide audience, because it is now common for Security, Operations, and Quality Assurance to all contribute code, tests, and configuration data. Distributed access means all traffic should run over SSL or VPN connections. User roles and access levels are essential for controlling who can do what, but we recommend requiring token-based or certificate-based authentication, with two-factor authentication a minimum for all administrative access.
- Build Tools and Controllers: The vast majority of development teams we spoke with use build controllers like Bamboo and Jenkins, with these platforms becoming an essential part of their automated build processes. These provide many pre-, post- and intra-build options, and can link to a myriad of other facilities, complicating security. We suggest full network segregation of the build controller system(s), and locking down network connections down to source code controller and docker services. If you can, deploy build servers as on-demand containers – this ensures standardization of the build environment and consistency of new containers. We recommend you limit access to the build controllers as tightly as possible, and leverage built-in features to restrict capabilities when developers need access. We also suggest locking down configuration and control data to prevent tampering with build controller behavior. We recommend keeping any sensitive data, such as
sshkeys, API access keys, database credentials, and the like in a secure database or data repository (such as a key manager,
.dmgfile, or vault) and pulling credentials on demand to ensure sensitive data never sits on disk unprotected. Finally, enable logging facilities or add-ons available for the build controller, and stream output to a secure location for auditing.
- Docker: You will use Docker as a tool for pre-production as well as production, building the build environment and test environments to vet new containers. As with build controllers like Jenkins, you’ll want to limit Docker access in the build environment to specific container administrator accounts. Limit network access to accept content only from the build controller system(s) and whatever trusted repository or registry you use.
Our next post will discuss validation of individual containers and their contents.