Understanding and Choosing a Database Assessment Solution, Part 4: Vulnerability and Security Policies
I was always fascinated by the Sapphire/Slammer worm. The simplicity of the attack and how quickly it spread were astounding. Sure, it didn’t have a malicious payload, but the simple fact that it could have created quite a bit of panic. This event is what I consider the dawn of database vulnerability assessment tools. From that point on it seemed like every couple of weeks we were learning of new database vulnerabilities on every platform. Compliance may drive today’s assessment purchase, but the vulnerabilities are always what grabs the media’s attention, and it remains a key feature for any database security product.
Prior to writing this post I went back and looked at all the buffer overflow and SQL injection attacks on DB2, Oracle, and SQL Server. It struck me when looking at them – especially those on SQL Server – why half of the administrative functions had vulnerabilities: whoever wrote them assumed that the functions were inaccessible to anyone who was not a DBA. The functions were conceptually supposed to be gated by access control and therefore safe. It was not so much that the programmers were not thinking about security, but they made incorrect assumptions about how the database internals like the parser and preprocessor worked. I have always said that SQL injection is an attack on the database through an application. It’s true, but technically the attacks are also getting through internal database processing layers prior to the exploit, as well as an eternal application layer. Looking back at the details it just seemed reasonable we would have these vulnerabilities, given the complexity of the database platforms and the lack of security training among software developers. Anyway, enough rambling about database security history.
Understanding database vulnerabilities and knowing how to remediate – whether through patches, workarounds, or third party detection tools – requires significant skill and training. Policy research is expensive, and so is writing and testing these policies. In my experience over the four years that I helped define and build database assessment policies, it would take an average of 3 days to construct a policy after a vulnerability was understood: A day to write and optimize the SQL test case, a day to create the description and put together remediation information, and another day to test on supported platforms. Multiply by 10 policies across 6 different platforms and you get an idea of the cost involved. Policy development requires a full-time team of skilled practitioners to manage and update vulnerability and security policies across the half dozen platforms commonly supported by the vendors. This is not a reasonable burden for non-security vendors to take on, so if database security is an issue, don’t try to do this in-house! Buying an aftermarket product excuses your organization from developing these checks, protecting you from specific threats hackers are likely to deploy, as well as more generic security threats.
What specific vulnerability checks should be present in your database assessment product? In a practical sense, it does not matter. Specific vulnerabilities come and go too fast for any list to be relevant. What I am going to do is provide a list of general security checks that should be present, and list the classes of vulnerabilities any product you evaluate should have policies for. Then I will cover other relevant buying criteria to consider.
General Database Security Policies
- List database administrator accounts and how they map to domain users.
- Product version (security patch level)
- List users with admin/special privileges
- List users with access to sensitive columns or data (credit cards, passwords)
- List users with access to system tables
- Database access audit (failed logins)
- Authentication method (domain, database, mixed)
- List locked accounts
- Listener / SQL Agent / UDP, network configuration (passwords in clear text, ports, use of named pipes)
- Systems tables (subset) not updatable
- Ownership chains
- Database links
- Sample Databases (Northwind, pubs, scott/tiger)
- Remote systems and data sources (remote trust relationships)
- Default Passwords
- Weak/blank/same as login passwords
- Public roles or guest accounts to anything
- External procedures (
xp_cmdshell, active scripting,
exproc, or any programatic access to OS level code)
- Buffer overflow conditions (XP, admin functions, Slammer/Sapphire, HEAP, etc. – too numerous to list)
- SQL Injection (1=1, most admin functions, temporary stored procedures, database name as code – too numerous to list)
- Network (Connection reuse, man in the middle, named pipe hijacking)
- Authentication escalation (XStatus / XP / SP, exploiting batch jobs, DTS leakage, remote access trust)
- Task injection (Webtasks, sp_xxx, MSDE service, reconfiguration)
- Registry access (SQL Server)
- DoS (named pipes, malformed requests,
INclause, memory leaks, page locks creating deadlocks)
There are many more. It is really important to understand that the total number of in policies any given product is irrelevant. As an example, let’s assume that your database has two modules with buffer overflow vulnerabilities, and each has eight different ways to exploit it. Comparing two assessment products, one might have 16 policies checking for each exploit, and the other could have two policies checking for two vulnerabilities. These products are functionally equivalent, but one vendor touts an order of magnitude more policies, which have no actual benefit. Do NOT let the number of policies influence your buying decision and don’t get bogged down in what I call a “policy escalation war”. You need to compare functional equivalence and realize that if one product can check for more vulnerabilities in fewer queries, it runs faster! It may take a little work on your part to comb through the policies to make sure what you need is present, but you need to perform that inspection regardless.
You will want to carefully confirm that the assessment platform covers the database versions you have. And just because your company supposedly migrated to Oracle 11 some time back does not mean you get to discount Oracle 9 database support, because odds are better than even that you have at least one still hanging around. Or you don’t officially support SQL Server, but it just so happens that some of the applications you run have it embedded. Furthermore, mergers and acquisitions bring unexpected benefits, such as database platforms you did not previously have in house. Or plans to migrate off a current platform have a way of changing suddenly, with the database sticking around in your organization many years longer than anticipated. Broad database coverage should weigh heavily in your buying decision.
The currency of policies (at least for coverage of the latest vulnerabilities) is very important. Check to make sure the vendor has a solid track record of delivering policy updates no less than once a quarter. The database vendors typically release a security patch each quarter, so your assessment vendor should as well. A ‘plan’ to do so is insufficient and should be a warning signal. Press vendors for proof of delivery, such as release documentation or policy maintenance update announcements to demonstrate consistent delivery of updated policies vulnerability polices.
Cross reference policies with the database vendor information. One of the interesting friction points between the database vendors and the vulnerability scanning vendors is the production of complete and detailed information on vulnerabilities. You need to have a clear and detailed explanation of each vulnerability to understand how a vulnerability affects your organization and what workarounds may be at your disposal. While assessment vendors are motivated to provide detailed information on the vulnerability itself, for whatever reason the database vendors tend to offer terse descriptions of the threats and corresponding patch data. Press the assessment vendor for detailed information, but keep in mind the database vendor must be considered the primary source of complete and accurate remediation information. It is wise, either during an evaluation or in production, to cross reference the information provided, and weigh how well each policy documents each threat.
Finally, database security advice comes from many different sources. The database vendors usually supply best practice checklists for free. The assessment products usually list the policies that they have developed over time from what they have learned in the field. There are other independent blogs, such as Pete Finnigan’s, that offer solid advice. Finally, most database vendors have regional user groups that share information on how to approach database security, which I have always found useful. Check to see if your assessment vendor has what you need, and they probably will given that the major data breaches as of this writing are leveraging the basic vulnerabilities. If you find something is missing, find out if your vendor can provide it for you. We will get into policy customization in more detail in the next post, as well as cover integration and policy set management topics.
This was supposed to be a short post on vulnerability and security best practices. Short because these two topics are not good indicators of how well a particular database assessment product will meet your needs. It may be interesting to a researcher like myself, but I realize this might be more information than you need or want. Data collection options discussed in part 3, alongside operations and compliance policies which we will discuss in part 5, have a greater bearing on how useful the product will be.